A woman's body is adapted by structure and function of sexual organs for producing offspring under the influence of sex hormones, primarily estrogen and gestagen, as well as the hormones of the hypothalamus and thyroid. Maintaining the health of sexual organs is a prerequisite for the health of woman throughout her life, and it is important for healthy offspring. Regular gynecological examinations and Pap smear, as well as the identification of problems and diseases using self-tests, that are available in pharmacies, ensure timely treatment of disease.
The menstrual cycle is a physiological process that usually lasts 28 days, during which a woman's body prepares for conception. By the absence of fertilization, the unfertilized egg dies out and normal physiological bleeding occurs. This cycle is dependent on a number of physiological, psychological, and hormonal factors. Disorder connected to any of these factors causes smaller problems, or diseases, which sometimes may be severe or may cause infertility.
Painful menstruation or dysmenorrhea occurs in most women until the mid-20s or until delivery. The symptoms are pain or cramping in the lower abdomen just before menstruation or during the first days of menstruation.
They are treated by painkillers, and resting, warming the abdomen, light food and drinking more fluids can help too.
Painful menstruation can be connected with inflammation in the pelvic area and sex organs, and it is therefore important that the doctor determines the true cause.
Birth control methods
Contraception allows family planning by knowing the fertile days, and ovulation. Ovulation occurs around the 14th day before the first day of the following menstruation, usually between 13th and 15th day, if the cycle lasts 28 days. Sexual intercourse during ovulation allows conception, and abstinence or protected intercourse helps to avoid it.
- Contraception can be a natural method and then it includes monitoring of changes in the density and elasticity of the cervical mucus, measuring of basal temperature or determination of the fertile days with regular cycles. One of the natural and reliable ways is the determination of the fertile and infertile days by testing the saliva with miniature microscope, which is available in all better equipped pharmacies.
- Medicines that are used for contraception are actually female sex hormones, and they are used as a therapy to treat disorders of the menstrual cycle, heavy or light menstruation, extremely painful menstruation, heavy acne or some change in ovaries or endometrium of the uterus. Like all medicines, hormonal preparations have certain side effects, which can be avoided or reduced by proper selection of products and regular medical control.
Tips for pregnant women
Pregnancy is a special condition during which the health of pregnant women has a significant impact on the health of the child.
- If a pregnant woman does not have health problems or some chronic diseases, she should lead a normal, healthy lifestyle, which includes proper nutrition and regular, adapted exercise.
- Diet of pregnant women should be diverse to ensure the intake of all the necessary ingredients, but she does not need to eat "for two", but she should increase the intake of food for 200-300 kcal / day after the fourth month of pregnancy.
- One should avoid eating sugar, salt and fat, and increase the intake of fruits, vegetables and liquids during pregnancy.
- During pregnancy women should take a specially customized vitamins and minerals.
- Pregnant women should have enough rest, and avoid the physical and mental stress.
Tips for women in menopause
Menopause is the last menstrual period, which occurs around the age of 50 and after that the woman is no longer capable of fertilization, and the period after that is called climacteric. It occurs due to reduced creation of hormones, especially estrogen, which causes a number of changes, connected to the sex organs, the urinary system and bones, and psychological changes. Bones can become porous and easily broken, which is called osteoporosis, and it is treated by medicines, which may be hormones or bisphosphonates, by increasing the intake of calcium and vitamin D. Women who have earlier menopause, which are thinner, which are smoking, drinking alcohol, taking less calcium or have history of osteoporosis in their family, have a greater risk of developing the disease. Every woman herself can easily be tested to determine menopause, and the test is available in pharmacies.
In order to better protect pregnant women, one need to take greater care of the balance of vaginal flora and in case of doubt to the first signs of any vaginal infections, urinary tract infections or fungal diseases one should perform self-test, and if the result is positive, seek medical advice.
Women`s sexual infections
- Infections can be caused by bacteria and fungi that can be transmitted by unprotected sexual intercourse.
- Infection, usually Candida albicans, can occur if normal vaginal flora is disrupted.
It sometimes occurs without any external reasons or as a result of stress, low immunity or taking certain medications.
- In the case of unprotected sexual intercourse sexually transmitted diseases can be transmitted: gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomoniasis, an infection with HIV, and chlamydial infection, which can cause infertility. Some of infections such as chlamydia can be determined by self-test which is available in pharmacies and are treated with oral or vaginal antimicrobials. Vaginal probiotics are also very useful for women.
- The infection with HPV (human papilloma virus) in most people causes no symptoms and withdraws spontaneously, but some may experience condyloma (type of warts), changes on the cervix, external sexual organ, anus in women, and on penis in men.
It should be known that some types of HPV turn into chronic infection and significantly increase the risk of cervical cancer. Medicine against HPV does not exist, but there is a vaccine for girls and boys used to protect them against infection with types of viruses that are at high risk for cancer development.