Urinary tract infections
Urinary tract infections or urinary infections, after respiratory, are the most inflammations often caused by microorganisms, and are the most common bacterial infections, and they represent the main reason for prescribing antibiotics. Healthy urine is sterile, and infection occurs when the bacteria which penetrate into the urinary tract from the body surface and from the gut multiply. The entry of microorganisms into the bladder does not immediately cause disease, because if the urination is normal, and there is a small amount of bacteria, they will be excreted in the urine.
If there is no regular emptying of the bladder, if the organism is hypothermic, exhausted by some other disease, immunity is reduced or it is stressed - bacteria will multiply and infection will occur.
Urinary tract infections in women and men
Urinary tract infections are more common in women than men, because women`s urethra is short, flat and wide, and thus facilitates the passage of bacteria to the bladder. The opening of the urethra of a female is close to the vagina and the colon, and is therefore subjected to a greater number of microorganisms. Bladder infections or cystitis is more frequent in women, and inflammation of the urethra, or urethritis, is more common in men. If the inflammation is not treated, it may complicate, whereby the inflammation spreads to the kidneys and can cause pyelonephritis and urosepsis.
In men it can also cause inflammation of the prostate or prostatitis, epididymitis or epididymitis, and inflammation of the testes or orchitis, and in women inflammation of the vagina or vaginitis.
Symptoms of urinary tract infections
Urinary tract infections have recognizable symptoms:
- frequent urination of small amounts of urine, frequently with unpleasant odor
- burning and unpleasant pressure
- strengthening of infection increases pain in the bladder, pressure or pain in the pelvis, pain in the lower back, elevated body temperature, and blood in the urine
- in young children symptoms are often general and non-specific - usually start as prostration, apathy, refusal of food and drink, high temperature, and urine can have intense aroma.
Causes of urinary tract infections
Urinary tract infections are most often caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli, even up to 80% of inflammations. E. coli is a natural inhabitant of the intestinal microflora, but it can over-proliferate and cause inflammation in the urinary system. In sensitive people and people with a weakened immune system, the infection can sometimes last longer, as it is often repeated.
Other causes are Enterococcus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis.
Diagnosing urinary tract infections
- Urinary tract infections are discovered by the examination and laboratory tests of urine, and blood, and sometimes with an X-ray or ultrasound image.
- When possible, urinary tract infections are treated according to antibiogram, and determination of the most effective antibiotic for a particular infection.
- For examination it is better to take the first morning urine in a sterile container. Before taking it one should wash genitals, dry it (preferably with a paper towel), let the first stream, and catch midstream of urine in a container.
- The urine of young children is collected in a sterile bag, which after washing the genitals is glued to the skin.
|Urine analysis should certainly be done before starting treatment with antibiotics, but it is possible to do them within two hours from the start of treatment.
Treatment of urinary tract infections
Treatment of urinary tract infections depends on the severity of symptoms, and antibiotics can be prescribed, such as: cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and cotrimoxazole and nitrofurantoin that, in people who have repeated infections, can be given as a preventive or for extended period of time. Antibiotic therapy may last for 3-10 days, and the length of treatment is determined by the doctor.
Symptoms can disappear in two days, but it is important to take all prescribed medicines so that infection would not return or develop resistance to antibiotic agents.
During treatment of any urinary tract infections one should drink large amounts of fluid to rinse the mucous membrane as much as possible. It is good to drink bearberry tea, urological tea, and cranberry juice, but it is important to know that bearberry tea and cranberry should not be taken simultaneously.
|To relieve symptoms it is good to increase the acidity of the lining of the urinary system and alkalinity of urine, which can be achieved by taking acidophilus.
Prevention of urinary tract infections
Urinary tract infections are more common in women, especially in menopause. They can become serious for pregnant women, diabetics, kidney patients and all patients with compromised immune system. Particular attention should be paid to people who get it more than three times a year.
- Women can reduce the possibility of infections by proper wiping of the anus after a bowel movement - from front to back.
- You need to drink eight glasses of water a day, and urinate every 2-4 hours.
- Drinking water before and after sex, urinating after sexual intercourse, taking vitamin C, and avoiding to wear tight clothing, prevent the occurrence of urinary infections.
- Regular intake of cranberry is also recommended.
- Doctor may recommend the application of local estrogen preparations to postmenopausal women.
|In women, it can happen that the microorganisms in the area of the vagina (Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma, Trichomonas) transfer into the urinary tract. Therefore, the balance of the normal vaginal flora is extremely important for the health of the urinary tract and sexual organs, which is improved by the use of probiotics.