Statistics have shown that out of all the human internal organs, the prostate is most frequently affected. The most common prostate disorders are:
- Benign prostatic hyperplasia
- Inflammation of the prostate - Prostatitis
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a nonmalignant, excessive growth of prostate cells. As the hyperplasia develops, so does the urethra (the tube that releases urine out of the bladder) gradually narrows leading to a large number of unpleasant and disturbing symptoms. The incidence of BPH increases with age. Thus, it is common to say that "all men get benign prostatic hyperplasia if they live long enough." A certain degree of BPH is present in 80% of men older than 40 years, and this figure increases to 95% of men older than 80 years.
Symptoms of Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
Less than half of all men suffering from BPH have symptoms that include:
- slow or delayed urination
- weak stream
- incomplete emptying (urge to urinate immediately after urination)
- dribbling (interruption of the stream while emptying the bladder)
- dripping (dripping of the urine that lasts a few seconds at the end of urination)
- nocturia (the need to urinate 2 to 3 times during the night)
- dysuria (pain when urinating)
- hematuria (presence of blood in urine)
- retention of urine (urine stagnation)
- frequent urination
- urgent urination (strong, sudden urge to urinate)
- incontinence (uncontrolled loss of urine)
Treatment of Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
For the treatment of BPH are used: alpha-1 blockers (tamsulosin-Flomax, doxazosin- Cardura, prazosin Minipress), 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (finasteride-Proscar, dutasteride- Avodart), and sometimes antibiotics. Surgical treatment - surgery is usually indicated in men with symptoms of incontinence, blood in the urine, urinary retention and recurrent urinary tract infections.
Inflammation of the prostate (Prostatitis)
Inflammation of the prostate is a common disease that at least once during life affects 10 - 15% of men. The symptoms are in the mildest form unpleasant, and usually followed by severe pain. There are several potential causes for the inflammation of the prostate, sometimes and several factors are responsible for the occurrence of inflammation. The most common causes are: Bacterial infections (mostly intestinal bacteria, Proteus, Staphylococcus), an autoimmune disease, neuromuscular or mechanical injury.
Symptoms of Prostatitis
Symptoms of inflammation of the prostate are not specific only to this disease so they can resemble the symptoms of other diseases of the genitourinary system. Symptoms sometimes do not occur at all, and sometimes they are so pronounced and sudden that patients often ask for an emergent help.
Acute inflammation of the prostate: symptoms occur abruptly. There may be pain in the area below and behind the sexual organs, pain in the lower abdomen and back, difficulty urinating, frequent urination of small amounts of urine, frequent urination at night, purulent or bloody discharge from the urethra, fatigue, fever. If there is a swelling of the prostate, it may interfere with urine so that it impedes its flow (urinary retention) and causes accumulation in the urinary bladder. The prostate is almost always increased.
Chronic inflammation of the prostate: Chronic infection can develop from acute or disease from the beginning has a chronic course. In this case patient experiences moderate pain under and behind the penis, lower back pain, and milder urinary disorders as difficulty urinating of small amounts of urine, scant bloody or purulent discharge from the urethra. There is also tiredness, tingling, painful ejaculation and even impotence. The prostate can be increased or decreased and hard. It is not rare that the only symptom of chronic inflammation of the prostate is a repeated infection of the urinary bladder.
Treatment of Prostatitis
Treatment of acute form involves bed rest, suppression of temperature and sufficient fluid intake (due to increased loss due to high temperature). In addition to symptomatic treatment antibiotic therapy is applied according to the determined cause. The treatment must be carried out for a period of one month. Otherwise the chronic prostatitis may occur.
Treatment of chronic prostatitis represents a problem because antibiotics penetrate very hard in the chronically inflamed prostate tissue. First of all one has to identify the causes of inflammation, which can also be a problem because they can be "hidden" deep in the tissue of the prostate. The choice of antibiotic will depend not only on the sensitivity of the cause but also on the ability to penetrate into the prostate tissue. In addition, the treatment must be carried out long enough, sometimes up to three months.